PENGARUH AKTIFITAS ANTROPOGENIK TERHADAP SEBARAN DAN JUMLAH JENIS POLISIKLIK AROMATIK HIDROKARBON (PAH) DALAM AIR LAUT DAN SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN TELUK JAKARTA

Khozanah Munawir, Deny Yogaswara

Abstract


Teluk Jakarta adalah perairan yang terletak di Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta dan Jawa Barat serta persisnya di pantai utara Propinsi Banten. Di perairan ini bermuara tiga belas sungai yang membawa berbagai macam limbah yang berasal dari daratan menuju ke perairan Teluk Jakarta. Berbagai aktivitas terdapat di perairan ini, antara lain sebagai tempat mencari ikan bagi nelayan, pariwisata, dan pelayaran. Selain itu, di perairan ini juga terdapat pelabuhan laut internasioal Tanjung Priok. Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) adalah salah satu parameter kualitas lingkungan perairan. Penentuan kadar PAH dalam air dan sedimen di perairan Teluk Jakarta telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli-Agustus 2015. Ada tiga titik kawasan, yaitu kawasan barat, tengah dan timur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sebaran kadar dan jumlah jenis PAH di perairan Teluk Jakarta dan menambah data base inventarisasi PAH Perairan Indonesia. Kadar PAH diukur dengan Gas Chroromatografi – Flame Ionisasi Detector (GC-FID) yang dilengkapi dengan kolom kapiler HP1. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa sebaran kadar PAH total dalam air laut di kawasan barat berkisar antara 0,007-0,056 ppb, dengan rerata sebesar 0,019 ppb, di kawasan tengah berkisar antara 0,009-0,081 ppb dengan rerata sebesar 0,033 ppb, di kawasan timur berkisar antara tidak terdeteksi (ttd)-0,03 ppb dengan rerata sebesar 0,011 ppb. Kadar total PAH dalam sedimen di kawasan barat berkisar antara 1,1983-7,9750 ppm, dengan rerata sebesar 2,9127 ppm, dikawasan tengah berkisar antara 1,6229-8,2591 ppm, dengan rerata sebesar 4,7049 ppm, dan dikawasan timur berkisar antara 1,597-2,9661 ppm dengan rerata sebesar 2,1224 ppm. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, kadar PAH dalam perairan Teluk Jakarta (kawasan barat, tengah dan timur) belum melebihi Baku Mutu Kualitas Perairan yang dikeluarkan oleh Kantor Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup 2004. Demikian juga untuk kadar PAH dalam sedimen, ditemukan 15 jenis PAH di Teluk Jakarta.
Kata kunci: Teluk Jakarta, Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH), lingkungan

Jakarta Bay is located in northern of Jakarta,West Jawa, and Banten rovince. Jakarta Bayis throughten by 13 rivers which coming out and carry out kind of waste from land runoff. Many activities was happened such as fishing, tourisme, shipping and an international sea port, Tanjung Priok. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) is one of marine environment quality parameters. Determination of PAHs in seawaters and sediments were conducted in July-August 2015. Sampling site was divided in three region: west (Banten), middle (Jakarta) and east (West Jawa). The aim of the research is to determine the distribution levels and kind number of PAH and inventory data base of PAH in Indonesian seawaters. PAH levels measured by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) equipped with a capillary column HP1. The results showed that the levels of PAH total in sea water in the western region ranged from 0.007 to 0.056 ppb, with an average of 0,019 ppb, in the middle range between 0.009 to 0.081 ppb with an average of 0.033 ppb, and in eastern region ranged undetected to 0.030 ppb with an average of 0.011 ppb. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in July-August in the western region ranged from 1.1983 to 7.9750 ppm, with an average of 2.9127 ppm, the central region ranges from 16.229 to 8.2591 ppm, with an average amounted to 4.7049 ppm, in the eastern region ranged between 1.5972 – 2.9661ppm with an average of 2.1224 ppm. PAH concentration seawaters and sediment in Jakarta Bay (west, middle and east region) is not exceed of the Quality Standard Water Quality which issued by Ministry of Environment 2004. Number of kinds PAH was found 15.
Keywords: Jakarta Bay, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), environment


Keywords


Teluk Jakarta; Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH); lingkungan

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