Assessing Heavy Metals Contamination in Suspended Particulate Matter in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

Fitri Budiyanto, Lestari Lestari


Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) is an important compartment within water column due to its capability in adsorbing pollutant like heavy metals. However, there was limited information regarding SPM and its heavy metals content in Jakarta Bay. Therefore, this study was proposed to understand the spatial distribution, source and to assess metal content in SPM in Jakarta Bay. The samples were collected from 24 stations in April 2011 and were then analyzed using acid digestion processes adopted from USEPA 3050b. The generated data were then modeled to determine the spatial distribution of metals in SPM. The result revealed that the concentration of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in SPM were as follow: 10-110; 21-472; 14-356; 7-107; 87-4255, respectively. Since Cd, Pb and Zn in SPM were majorly concentrated in the area closed to harboring activities, the activities was suspected in contributing of high input of those metals, meanwhile, Cu and Ni was mostly came from riverine runoff. The computation of Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) revealed that the major area in Jakarta Bay was unpolluted by Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in SPM however 96% of the selected area were strongly contaminated by Cd in SPM. Thus, this study emphasized that harbor area as a dominant source of metals in SPM in Jakarta Bay and required to be well managed.

Keywords: Jakarta Bay, Suspended Particulate Matter, heavy metals, contamination.

Materi Partikulat Tersuspensi (SPM) merupakan bagian penting dalam kolom air karena kemampuannya dalam menjerat polutan seperti logam berat. Akan tetapi, informasi mengenai SPM dan kandungan logam berat dalam SPM di Teluk Jakarta terbatas. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari studi ini adalah untuk mengetahui distribusi spasial, dan sumber logam berat serta menilai kualitas lingkungan berdasar kandungan logam berat dalam SPM di Teluk Jakarta. Sampel SPM diambil dari 24 titik observasi pada bulan April 2011 kemudian dianalisis dengan proses digestif asam yang diadopsi dari USEPA 3050b. Data yang didapat kemudian dimodelkan untuk mengetahui distribusi spasial logam berat dalam SPM. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb dan Zn dalam SPM secara berurutan sebagai berikut: 10-110; 21-472; 14-356; 7-107; 87-4255 Cd, Pb dan Zn lebih ditengarai bersumber dari aktivitas pelabuhan karena konsentrasi Cd, Pb dan Zn di area tersebut tinggi sementara Cu dan Ni lebih banyak berasal dari limpasan sungai. Perhitungan Indeks Geoakumulasi (Igeo) menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar area tidak tercemar oleh Cu, Pb, Zn dan Ni akan tetapi 96% area teramati tercemar Cd. Oleh karena itu, studi ini menyarankan untuk ditingkatkannya manajemen pembuangan limbah di pelabuhan sebagai sumber logam.

Kata kunci: Teluk Jakarta, Materi Partikulat Tersuspensi, logam berat, pencemaran.


Jakarta Bay;Suspended Particulate Matter;heavy metals;contamination

Full Text:



Bazzano, A., Ardini, F., Terol, A., Rivaro, P., Soggia, F., and Grotti, M., 2017. Effects of the Atlantic water and glacial run-off on the spatial distribution of particulate trace elements in the Kongsfjorden. Marine Chemistry, 191: 16–23.

Bazzano, A., Rivaro, P., Soggia, F., Ardini, F., and Grotti, M., 2014. Anthropogenic and natural sources of particulate trace elements in the coastal marine environment of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Marine Chemistry, 163: 28–35.

Buggy, C. J., and Tobin, J. M., 2008. Seasonal and spatial distribution of metals in surface sediment of an urban estuary. Environmental Pollution, 155(2): 308–319. .

Caeiro, S., Costa, M. H., Ramos, T. B., Fernandes, F., Silveira, N., Coimbra, A., Medioros, G., and Painho, M., 2005. Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecological Indicator, 5(2): 151–169.

Chae, J. S., Choi, M. S., Song, Y. H., Um, I. K., and Kim, J. G., 2014. Source identification of heavy metal contamination using metal association and Pb isotopes in Ulsan Bay sediments, East Sea, Korea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 88(1–2): 373–382.

Chatterjee, M., Silva Filho, E. V., Sarkar, S. K., Sella, S. M., Bhattacharya, A., Satpathy, K. K., Prasad, M. R.V., Chakraborty S., and Bhattacharya, B. D., 2007. Distribution and possible source of trace elements in the sediment cores of a tropical macrotidal estuary and their ecotoxicological significance. Environment International, 33(3): 346–356.

Dali-youcef, N., Ouddane, B., and Derriche, Z., 2006. Adsorption of zinc on natural sediment of Tafna River (Algeria). Journal of Hazardous Material, 137(3): 1263–1270.

El-Nemr, A., Khaled, A., and El-Sikaily, A., 2006. Distribution and statistical analysis of leachable and total heavy metals in the sediments of the Suez Gulf. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118(1–3): 89–112.

El-Said, G. F., Draz, S. E. O., El-Sadaawy, M. M., and Moneer, A. a., 2014. Sedimentology, geochemistry, pollution status and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in surficial sediments of an Egyptian lagoon connecting to the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/hazardous Substance and Environmental Engineering, 49(9): 1029–1044.

El-Sorogy, A. S., and Youssef, M., 2015. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in intertidal gastropod and bivalve shells from central Arabian Gulf coastline, Saudi Arabia. Journal of African Earth Science, 111: 41–53.

Feng, C., Guo, X., Yin, S., Tian, C., and Li, Y., 2017. Heavy metal partitioning of suspended particulate matter e water and sediment e water in the Yangtze Estuary. Chemosphere, 185: 717–725.

Gao, X., Zhou, F., Chen, C. A., and Xing, Q., 2015. Trace metals in the suspended particulate matter of the Yellow River (Huanghe ) Estuary: Concentrations, potential mobility, contamination assessment and the fluxes into the Bohai Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 104: 25–36.

Han, D., Cheng, J., Hu, X., Jiang, Z., Mo, L., Xu, H., Ma, Y., Chen, X., and Wang, H., 2017. Spatial distribution, risk assessment and source identi fi cation of heavy metals in sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115(1–2): 141–148.

Hartati, T., Priyanto, N., Kurniasari, A., Rachmawati, N., Triwibowo, R., Dsikowitzky, L., and Schwarzbauer, J., 2016. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of the trace hazardous element contamination in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110: 634–646.

Hatje, V., Payne, T. E., Hill, D. M., Mcorist, G., Birch, G. F., and Szymczak, R., 2006. Kinetics of trace element uptake and release by particles in estuarine waters: effects of pH, salinity, and particle loading. Environment International, 29(2003): 619–629.

Helali, M. A., Oueslati, W., Zaaboub, N., Added, A., and Aleya, L., 2016. Chemical speciation of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr in the suspended particulate matter off the Mejerda River Delta (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). Journal of African Earth Science, 118: 35–44.

Huang, J., Ge, X., and Wang, D., 2012. Distribution of heavy metals in the water column, suspended particulate matters and the sediment under hydrodynamic conditions using an annular flume. Journal of Environmental Science, 24(12): 2051–2059.

Kang, C. H., Oh, S. J., Shin, Y., Han, S. H., Nam, I. H., and So, J. S., 2015. Bioremediation of lead by ureolytic bacteria isolated from soil at abandoned metal mines in South Korea. Ecological Engineering, 74: 402–407.

Kontas, A., 2007. Trace metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, Fe) Contamination in Marine Sediment and Zooplankton Samples from Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey). Water, Air, Soil,and Pollution, 188(1–4), 323–333 ().

Ladwig, N., Hesse, K., Van Der Wulp, S. A., Damar, A., and Koch, D., 2016. Pressure on oxygen levels of Jakarta Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(2): 665–674.

Li, G., Hu, B., Bi, J., Leng, Q., Xiao, C., and Yang, Z., 2013. Heavy metals distribution and contamination in surface sediments of the coastal Shandong Peninsula (Yellow Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 76: 420–426.

Liu, C., Fan, C., Shen, Q., Shao, S., Zhang, L., and Zhou, Q., 2016. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface. Chemosphere, 144: 2329–2335.

Loring, D. H., and Rantala, R. T. T., 1992. Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth-Science Reviews, 32(4): 235–283.

Mohammed, A., May, T., Echols, K., Walther, M., Manoo, A., Maraj, D., Agard, J., and Orazio, C., 2012. Metals in sediments and fish from Sea Lots and Point Lisas Harbors, Trinidad and Tobago. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(1): 169–173.

Nguyen, H. L., Leermakers, M., Osán, J., Török, S., and Baeyens, W., 2005. Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota. Science of Total Environment, 340(1–3): 213–230.

Oursel, B., Garnier, C., Durrieu, G., Mounier, S., Omanović, D., and Lucas, Y., 2013. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 69(1–2): 137–149.

Pekey, H., 2006. Heavy metal pollution assessment in sediments of the Izmit Bay, Turkey. Environment Monitoring and Assessment, 123: 219–231.

Rahman Z., and Singh, V. P., 2016. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and Hg-resistant bacteria in surface water from different regions of Delhi, India. Saudi Journal of Biological Science.

Retno, W., Suseno, H., Zamani, N. P., and Soedharma, D., 2016. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cesium in the Milk fi sh Chanos chanos from Jakarta Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110(2): 647–653.

Rinawati, Koike, T., Koike, H., Kurumisawa, R., Ito, M., Sakurai, S., Togo, A., Saha, M., Arifin, Z., and Takada, H., 2012. Distribution, source identification, and historical trends of organic micropollutants in coastal sediment in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. Journal of Hazardous Material, 217–218: 208–216.

Shigemitsu, M., Nishioka, J., Watanabe, Y. W., Yamanaka, Y., Nakatsuka, T., and Volkov, Y. N., 2013. Fe / Al ratios of suspended particulate matter from intermediate water in the Okhotsk Sea Implications for long-distance lateral transport of particulate Fe. Marine Chemistry, 157: 41–48.

Sun, Z., Xu, G., Hao, T., Huang, Z., Fang, H., and Wang, G., 2015. Release of heavy metals from sediment bed under wave-induced liquefaction. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 97(1–2): 209–216.

Suja, S., Kessarkar, P. M., Fernandes, L. L., Kurian, S., and Tomer, A., 2017. Spatial and temporal distribution of metals in suspended particulate matter of the Kali estuary, India. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 196: 10–21.

Varol, M., 2011. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Tigris River (Turkey) using pollution indices and multivariate statistical techniques. Journal of Hazardous Material, 195: 355–364.

Viers, J., Dupré, B., and Gaillardet, J., 2008. Chemical composition of suspended sediments in World Rivers: New insights from a new database. Science of Total Environment, 407(2): 853–868.

Wang, J., Liu, R., Zhang, P., Yu, W., Shen, Z., and Feng, C., 2014. Spatial variation, environmental assessment and source identification of heavy metals in sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 87(1–2): 364–373.

Wang, Y., Wei, Y., Guo, P., Pan, J., Wu, Q., and Liu, N., 2016. Distribution variation of heavy metals in maricultural sediments and their enrichment, ecological risk and possible source — A case study from Zhelin bay in Southern China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 113(1–2): 240–246.

Wang, Z.H., Feng, J., Jiang, T., and Gu, Y.G., 2013. Assessment of metal contamination in surface sediments from Zhelin Bay, the South China Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 76(1–2): 383–388.

Williams, T. M., Rees, J. G., and Setiapermana, D., 2000. Metals and Trace Organic Compounds in Sediments and Waters of Jakarta Bay and the Pulau Seribu Complex , Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 3: 277–285.

Xu, G., Liu, J., Pei, S., Kong, X.,and Hu, G., 2014. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 83: 275–281.

Yao, Q., Wang, X., Jian, H., Chen, H., and Yu, Z., 2016. Behavior of suspended particles in the Changjiang Estuary: Size distribution and trace metal contamination. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 103(1–2): 159–167.