A First Record of Metal Fractionation in Coastal Sediment from Ambon Bay, Moluccas, Indonesia

Lestari Lestari, Fitri Budiyanto, Corry Yanti Manullang


Five metals in sediment samples at seven sites from the Ambon Bay were analyzed with BCR sequential extraction procedure to determine chemical fractionation of metals and to assess bioavailability of metals with Risk Assessment Code (RAC). The result showed that the percentages of cadmium (100%), lead (82.6-97.08%) and zinc (41.68-76.33%) were mostly accumulated in the non-residual (F1+F2+F3) fraction of the total concentrations. While the copper percentages (44.74-78.91%) and nickel (59.71-74.16%) were mostly accumulated in residual (F4) fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc at locations exist in acid soluble (exchangeable) fraction and therefore, they are in low until very high risk category meanwhile there is no Pb at locations exist in acid soluble (exchangeable) fraction. 


metal fractionation;sediment;RAC;Ambon Bay

Full Text:



Amin, B, Ismail, A., Arshad, A., and Kamarudin, M.S. 2007. Distribution and speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Ni) in coastal sediment of Dumai Sumatera, Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Development, 10(2): 125 – 141.

Andreas, R., and Jing, Z. 2016. Fractionation and environmental risk of trace metals in surface sediment of The East China Sea by modified BCR sequential extraction method. Molekul, 11(1): 42 – 52.

Arifin, Z., Situmorang, S.B., and Booij, K. 2010. Geochemistry of heavy metals (Pb, Cr and Cu) in sediments and benthic communities of Berau Delta, Indonesia. Coastal Marine Science, 34(1): 205-211.

Benson, N.U., Anake, W.U., and Olanrewaju, I.O. 2013. Analitical relevance of trace metal speciation in environmental and biophysical system. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 4: 633-641.

Campbell, P.G.C., Lewis, A.G., Chapman, P.M., Crowder, A.A., Fletcher, W.K., Imber, B., Luoma, S.N., Stokes, P.M., and Winfrey, M. 1988. Biologically available metals in sediments, National Research Council of Canada, Publication No. NRCC 27694.

Cao L., Tian, H., Yang, J., Shi, P., Lou, Q., Waxi, L., Ni, Z., and Peng, X. 2015. Multivariate analyses and evaluation of heavy metals by Chemometric BCR sequential extraction method in surface sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China. Sustainability, 7: 4938-4951; doi:10.3390/su7054938.

Corvianawatie, C., Cahyarini, S.Y. and Putri, M.R. 2016. Reconstruction of sea surface temperature data based on the Sr/Ca of Porites Coral in Ambon Bay. Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences, 48(2): 115-129.

Craba, L., Brunori, C., Galletti, M., Cremisini, C., and Morabito, R. 2004. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures (original and modified 3 steps BCR procedure) Applied to sediments of different origin. Annali Di Chimica, 94(56): 409–419. doi:10.1002/adic. 200490050.

Cuong, D.T., and Obbard, N. 2006. Metal speciation in coastal marine sediments from Singapore using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure. Applied Geochemistry, 21: 1335–1346. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeo chem.2006.05.001.

Gu, Y-G. 2018. Heavy metal fractionation and ecological risk implications in the intertidal surface sediments of Zhelin Bay, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 129(2): 905-912.

Hlavay, J., Prohaska, T., Weisz, M., Wenzel, W.W., and Stingeder, J. 2004. Determination of trace elements bound to soils and sediment fractions (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Applied Chemistry, 76(2): 415–442.

Horvath, M., Halasz, G., Kucanova, E., Kucikova, B., Fekete, I., Remeteiova, D., Heltai, G., and Florian, K. 2013. Sequential extraction studies on aquatic sediment and biofilm samples for the assessment of heavy metal mobility. Microchemical Journal, 107: 121-125.

Jain, C. K. 2004 Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India. Water Reseach, 38: 569-578.

Lestari and Budiyanto F. 2019. Metal speciation in sediment from Muara Angke, Jakarta Bay using of BCR sequential extraction procedure, Ilmu Kelautan: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 24 (1): 23-30.

Lestari, Budiyanto F. and Hindarti D. 2018. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia. Global Colloquium on GeoSciences and Engineering 2017, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 118 (2018) 012059 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012059.

Lin, C., Liu Y., Li W., Sun X., and Ji W. 2014. Speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Xiamen Bay surface sediment. Acta Oceanolica Sinica, 33 (4): 13–2. DOI: 10.1007/s13131-014-0453-2.

Lin Y., Meng F., Du Y. and Tan Y. 2016. Distribution, speciation, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, China. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(5): 1253-1267, DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2016. 1159503.

Manullang C.Y., Lestari, Tapilatu Y.and Arifin Z. 2017. Assessment of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd & Hg in Ambon Bay surface sediments. Marine. Research in. Indonesia Journal, 42 (20): 77-86.

Morelli G and Gasparon M., 2014. Metal contamination of estuarine intertidal sediments of Moreton Bay, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 89: 435-443 .

Najamuddin, Prartono T, Sanusi H.S. and Nurjaya I.W. 2016. Seasonal distribution and geochemical fractionation of heavy metals from surface sediment in a tropical estuary of Jenebarang River, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 111: 456-462.

Nemati, K., Abu Bakar, N. K., Abas, M. R., and Sobhanzadeh, E. 2011. Speciation of heavy metals by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in different depths of sediments from Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 19: 402-410.

Qiao, Y., Yang, Y., Gu, J., and Zhao, J. 2013. Distribution and geochemical speciation of heavy metals in sediments from coastal area suffered rapid urbanization, a case study of Shantou Bay, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 68(1-2): 140–146. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.12.003.

Sarkar S. K., Paulo J.C.F, Dibyendu R and Satpathy K.K. 2014. Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and sediments, Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination, Maria C. Hernandez-Soriano, Intech Open, DOI: 10.5772/57295.

Siahaya N., Noor A., Sukamto N., and de Voogd N. 2013. A preliminary effort to assign sponge (Callispogia sp) as trace metal biomonitor for Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr, an environmental perspective in Hative gulf waters Ambon. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 549-552

Takarina, N.D., Browne, D.R. and Risk, M.J. 2004. Speciation of heavy metals in coastal sediment of Semarang, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49: 84-874.

Tupan C.I., E.Y. Herawati, D. Arfiati and Aulanni’am. 2013. Heavy metal of Lead (Pb) profile in water, sediment and seagrass (Thalassiahemprichii) in Ambon Island. Proceeding ICGRC Brawijaya University, Feb 7-8th, 2013.

Turki A J. 2007. Metal Speciation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Sediments from Al Shabab Lagoon, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JKAU: Marine Science, 18: 191-210.

Werolangi S., Samawi M.F., Rastina, Tahir A., Faizaland A., and Massinal A. 2016. Bioavailability of Pb and Cu in sediment of Vegetated Seagrass, Enhalusacoroides, from Spermonde Island, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 10: 126-134.

Yang J., Cao L., Wang J., Liu C., Huang C., Cai W., Fang H. and Peng X. 2014. Speciation of metals and assessment of contamination in surface sediments from Daya Bay, South China Sea. Sustainability, 6: 9096-9113; doi:10.3390/su6129096.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32693/bomg.34.1.2019.570