Oblique Intraplate Convergence of the Seram Trough, Indonesia

Adi Patria

Abstract


The Banda Arc which curves around through 180o is one of interesting features in Eastern Indonesia, a complex area resulting from convergence of Indo–Australia, Eurasia, and Pacific plates with a number of microplates involved. Its complexity has led to debates on how the U–shaped geometry was attained. This study investigates seafloor morphology and seismicity around the Seram Trough which may help to give an insight into the tectonic setting of the area. We further discuss each model proposed for the Seram Trough by previous authors. Generally, there are two views on how many slabs are subducting beneath the Banda Arc, either double slabs or single slab. The Seram Trough, which is often linked to the Timor–Tanimbar Trough enclosing the Banda Arc, was interpreted in different ways, with many models by many authors, as a subduction trench, an intraplate foredeep and a zone of strike–slip faulting. We argue that the most plausible explanation is a single slab model to explain the nature of the Banda Arc. The most plausible model for the Seram Trough is a foredeep model which is associated with exhumation processes on Seram and the deep feature was caused by a subsidence, led by loading by the fold–thrust belt. The Seram Trough is significantly different to common subduction systems. It has shallower bathymetry, is less than 3000 m in depth and is an almost aseismic zone.
Keywords: Banda Arc, Buru Basin, convergence, fold–thrust belt, Seram Trough.


Busur Banda yang melengkung 180o merupakan fitur menarik di Indonesia bagian timur, suatu area kompleks hasil konvergensi lempeng Indo–Australia, Eurasia dan Pasifik dengan beberapa lempeng mikro terlibat. Kompleksitasnya mengarah pada perdebatan bagaimana geometri ‘U’ terbentuk. Studi ini menginvestigasi morfologi dasar laut dan kegempaan disekitar Palung Seram yang dapat membantu memberikan wawasan tentang tatanan tektonik area tersebut. Kami juga mendiskusikan setiap model yang diajukan untuk Palung Seram oleh beberapa penulis sebelumnya. Umumnya, terdapat dua penjelasan tentang berapa jumlah lempeng yang menunjam dibawah Busur Sunda, antara dua lempeng atau satu lempeng. Palung Seram yang sering dihubungkan dengan Palung Timor-Tanimbar menyelubungi Busur Banda telah diinterpretasikan dengan beberapa model oleh beberapa penulis sebagai palung subduksi, foredeep dalam satu lempeng dan zona sesar mendatar. Kami mengajukan bahwa penjelasan yang memungkinkan adalah model satu lempeng dalam penjelasan keadaan Busur Banda. Model yang dapat diterima untuk Palung Seram adalah foredeep di depan sabuk sesar anjak dan lipatan yang berasosiasi dengan exhumation processes di Pulau Seram dan fitur yang dalam diakibatkan oleh subsidence akibat pembeban jalur sesar anjak dan lipatan. Palung Seram memiliki batimetri yang lebih dangkal, kurang dari 3000m dan merupakan zona aseismik.
Kata kunci: Busur Banda, Cekungan Buru, konvergensi, jalur sesar anjak dan lipatan, Palung Seram.


Keywords


Banda Arc, Buru Basin, convergence, fold-thrust belt, Seram Trough.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, M. J., & Chamalaun, F. H. (1981). Geochronology of some Banda Arc volcanics. In A. J. Barber & S. Wiryosujono (Eds.), The geology and tectonics of Eastern Indonesia (Special Pu, pp. 253–268). Bandung: Geological Research and Development Centre.

Abers, G., & Mccaffrey, R. (1988). Active deformation in the New Guinea Fold-and-Thrust Belt: Seismological Evidence for Strike-slip Faulting and Basement Involved Thrusting. Journal of Geophysical Research, 93(November), 332–354. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB093iB11p13332

Adhitama, R., Hall, R., & White, L. T. (2017). Extension in The Kumawa Block, West Papua, Indonesia. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 41st Annual Convention, IPA17–125–G. https://doi.org/10.29118/IPA.50.17.125.G

Audley-Charles, M. G. (1986). Timor-Tanimbar Trough: the foreland basin to the evolving Banda orogen. In: P. A. Allen, and P. Homewood. In P. A. Allen & P. Homewood (Eds.), Foreland Basins (Special Pu, pp. 91–102). International Association of Sedimentologists.

Audley-Charles, M. G., Carter, D. J., Barber, a. J., Norvick, M. S., & Tjokrosapoetro, S. (1979). Reinterpretation of the geology of Seram: implications for the Banda Arcs and northern Australia. Journal of the Geological Society, 136(5), 547–566. https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.136.5.0547

Bock, Y., Prawirodirdjo, L., Genrich, J. F., Stevens, C. W., McCaffrey, R., Subarya, C., et al. (2003). Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(B8), 2367. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000324

Bowin, C., Purdy, G. M., Johnston, C., Shor, G., Lawver, L., Hartono, H. M. S., & Jezek, P. (1980). Arc-Continent Collision in Banda Sea Region. AAPG BULLETIN, 64, 868–925.

Cardwell, R. K., & Isacks, B. L. (1978). Geometry of the subducted lithosphere beneath the Banda Sea in eastern Indonesia from seismicity and fault plane solutions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 83(8), 2825–2838. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB083iB06p02825

Charlton, T. R. (2000). Tertiary evolution of the Eastern Indonesia collision complex. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18(5), 603–631. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00049-8

Cloos, M., Sapiie, B., Quarles van Ufford, A., Weiland, R. J., Warren, P. Q., & McMahon, T. P. (2005). Collisional delamination in New Guinea: The geotectonics of subducting slab breakoff. In Special Paper 400: Collisional Delamination in New Guinea: The Geotectonics of Subducting Slab Breakoff. https://doi.org/10.1130/2005.2400

Darman, H., & Reemst, P. (2012). Seismic Expression of Geological Features in Seram Sea: Seram Trough, Misool-Onin Ridge and Sedimentary Basin. Berita Sedimentologi, 23, 28–34.

Dow, D. B., & Sukamto, R. (1984). Western Irian Jaya: The end-product of oblique plate convergence in the late tertiary. Tectonophysics, 106, 109–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(84)90224-5

Haile, N. S. (1978). Paleomagnetic evidence for the rotation of Seram, Indonesia. Journal of Physics of the Earth. https://doi.org/10.4294/jpe1952.26.Supplement_S191

Hall, R. (2002). Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 353–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-9120(01)00069-4

Hall, R. (2012). Late Jurassic-Cenozoic reconstructions of the Indonesian region and the Indian Ocean. Tectonophysics, 570–571, 1–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.04.021

Hall, R., & Wilson, M. E. J. (2000). Neogene sutures in eastern Indonesia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 18(6), 781–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-9120(00)00040-7

Hall, R., Patria, A., Adhitama, R., Pownall, J. M., & White, L. T. (2017). Seram, the Seram Trough, the Aru Trough, the Tanimbar Trough and the Weber Deep: A new look at major structures in the eastern Banda Arc. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 41st Annual Convention, IPA17–91–G. https://doi.org/10.29118/IPA.50.17.91.G

Hamilton, W. (1979). Tectonics of the Indonesian Region. USGS Professional Paper. Retrieved from https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp1078

Hill, K. C. (2005). Tectonic and Regional Structure of Seram and the Banda Arc. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 30th Annual Convention, IPA05-G-201.

Hinschberger, F., Malod, J. A., Réhault, J. P., Villeneuve, M., Royer, J. Y., & Burhanuddin, S. (2005). Late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Tectonophysics, 404(1–2), 91–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2005.05.005

Honthaas, C., Rénault, J. P., Maury, R. C., Bellon, H., Hémond, C., Malod, J. A., et al. (1998). A Neogene back-arc origin for the Banda Sea basins: Geochemical and geochronological constraints from the Banda ridges (East Indonesia). Tectonophysics, 298(4), 297–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(98)00190-5

Katili, J. A. (1975). Volcanism and plate tectonics in the Indonesian island arcs. Tectonophysics, 26(3–4), 165–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(75)90088-8

Katili, J. A. (1989). Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 24(2–3), 103–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/0077-7579(89)90143-9

Katili, J. A. (1991). Tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia and its bearing on the occurrence of hydrocarbons. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 8(1), 70–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(91)90046-4

Kemp, G., & Mogg, W. (1992). A re-appraisal of the geology, tectonics and prospectivity of Seram Island, eastern Indonesia. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 21st Annual Convention, I, 521–552.

Linthout, K., Helmers, H., & Andriessen, P. A. M. (1991). Dextral strike-slip in Central Seram and 3-4.5 Ma Rb/Sr ages in pre-triassic metamorphics related to early pliocene counterclockwise rotation of the Buru-Seram microplate (E. Indonesia). Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 6(3–4), 335–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-9547(91)90079-D

McCaffrey, R. (1989). Seismological constraints and speculations on Banda arc tectonics. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 24(2–3), 141–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/0077-7579(89)90145-2

McCaffrey, R., & Abers, G. A. (1991). Orogeny in arc-continent collision: The Banda arc and western New Guinea. Geology, 19(6), 563. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0563:OIACCT>2.3.CO;2

Milsom, J. (2001). Subduction in eastern Indonesia: How many slabs? Tectonophysics, 338(2), 167–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(01)00137-8

Nugroho, H., Harris, R., Lestariya, A. W., & Maruf, B. (2009). Plate boundary reorganization in the active Banda Arc-continent collision: Insights from new GPS measurements. Tectonophysics, 479(1–2), 52–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.01.026

O’Sullivan, T. D., Pegum, D., & Tarigan, J. (1985). Seram oil search, past discoveries and future oil potential. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 14th Annual Convention, I, 3–20.

Pairault, A. A., Hall, R., & Elders, C. F. (2003). Structural styles and tectonic evolution of the Seram Trough, Indonesia. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 20(10), 1141–1160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2003.10.001

Patria, A., & Hall, R. (2017). The Origin and Significance of the Seram Trough, Indonesia. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 41st Annual Convention, IPA17–19–G. https://doi.org/10.29118/IPA.50.17-19-G

Porritt, R. W., Miller, M. S., O’Driscoll, L. J., Harris, C. W., Roosmawati, N., & Teofilo da Costa, L. (2016). Continent–arc collision in the Banda Arc imaged by ambient noise tomography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 449, 246–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.06.011

Pownall, J. M., Hall, R., & Watkinson, I. M. (2013). Extreme extension across Seram and Ambon, eastern Indonesia: evidence for Banda slab rollback. Solid Earth, 4(2), 277–314. https://doi.org/10.5194/se-4-277-2013

Pownall, J. M., Forster, M. A., Hall, R., & Watkinson, I. M. (2017). Tectonometamorphic evolution of Seram and Ambon, eastern Indonesia: Insights from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Gondwana Research, 44, 35–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2016.10.018

Pubellier, M., & Ego, F. (2002). Anatomy of an escape tectonic zone: Western Irian Jaya (Indonesia). Tectonics, 21(4), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001TC901038

Puntodewo, S. S. O., McCaffrey, R., Calais, E., Bock, Y., Rais, J., Subarya, C., et al. (1994). GPS measurements of crustal deformation within the Pacific-Australia plate boundary zone in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Tectonophysics, 237(3–4), 141–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)90251-8

Riadini, P., Sapiie, B., & Nugraha, A. M. S. (2012). The Sorong Fault Zone Kinematics: Implication for Structural Evolution on Salawati Basin, Seram and Misool, West Papua, Indonesia. Berita Sedimentologi, 24, 61–72.

Sapiie, B., & Hadiana, M. (2014). Analogue Modeling of Oblique Convergent Strike-Slip Faulting and Application to The Seram Island, Eastern Indonesia. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience, 1(3), 121–134. https://doi.org/10.17014/ijog.v1i3.189

Sapiie, B., Hadiana, M., Patria, M., Widodo, Adyagharini, A. C., Saputra, A., & Teas, P. (2012). 3D STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY ANALYSIS USING INTEGRATED ANALOGUE SANDBOX MODELING: A CASE STUDY OF THE SERAM THRUST-FOLD BELT. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 36th Annual Convention, IPA12-G-045.

Sapin, F., Pubellier, M., Ringenbach, J. C., & Bailly, V. (2009). Alternating thin versus thick-skinned decollements, example in a fast tectonic setting: The Misool-Onin-Kumawa Ridge (West Papua). Journal of Structural Geology, 31(4), 444–459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2009.01.010

Spakman, W., & Hall, R. (2010). Surface deformation and slab-mantle interaction during Banda arc subduction rollback. Nature Geoscience, 3(8), 562–566. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo917

Špičák, A., Matějková, R., & Vaněk, J. (2013). Seismic response to recent tectonic processes in the Banda Arc region. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 64, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2012.11.014

Stevens, C. W., McCaffrey, R., Bock, Y., Genrich, J. F., Pubellier, M., & Subarya, C. (2002). Evidence for block rotations and basal shear in the world’s fastest slipping continental shear zone in NW New Guinea. In S. Stein; J. T. Freymeuller (Ed.), Plate boundary zones (Geodynamic). American Geophysical Union.

Teas, P. a., Decker, J., Orange, D., & Baillie, P. (2009). New Insight Into Structure and Tectonics of the Seram Trough From. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, 33rd Annual Convention, IPA09-G-091.

Watkinson, I. M., Hall, R., & Ferdian, F. (2011). Tectonic re-interpretation of the Banggai-Sula–Molucca Sea margin, Indonesia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 355(1), 203–224. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP355.10

Watkinson, I. M., Hall, R., Cottam, M. A., Sevastjanova, I., Suggate, S., Gunawan, I., et al. (2012). New Insights Into the Geological Evolution of Eastern Indonesia. Berita Sedimentologi, 23, 22–27.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32693/bomg.33.1.2018.553