Calcareous Nannoplankton (marine algae) Analysis in Subsurface Sediments of Andaman Sea

Marfasran Hendrizan, Rainer Arief Troa, Eko Triarso, Rina Zuraida, Shengfa Liu


Andaman Sea in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) is influenced by Indo-Australia monsoon winds. Marine sediment cores in this area, BS36 (06°55’50.8”N; 96°07’28.51”E; ; Water depth 1147.1 meters) were acquired by Geomarin III research vessel andanalysed its morphology for nannoplankton occurences. Results from qualitative identification on marine sediment core in Andaman Sea obtained 11 genus of nannoplankton marine algae in this area. Dominated genus discovered in this site is Gephyrocapsa, Emiliania, and Helicosphaera. Although this research is qualitative and preliminary study phase; however, this reference of modern nannoplankton taxonomy and features using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) would enhance marine algae biodiversity along Andaman Sea of Indonesian waters

Keywords: Nannoplankton, morphology, sediment core, taxonomy, Andaman Sea


Kawasan Laut Andaman terletak di wilayah kolam panas Indo-Pasifik sangat dipengaruhi oleh angin musim Indo-Australia. Conto inti sedimen laut di wilayah BS 36 (06°55’50.8” Utara; 96°7’28.51” Timur; kedalaman laut 1147,1 meter) diambil menggunakan wahana kapal riset Geomarin III dan dianalisis morfologi nanoplankton yang ditemukan di wilayah ini. Hasil dari pemerian kualitatif dari conto sedimen inti di Laut Andaman menghasilkan 11 genus nanoplankton sebagai alga laut yang dapat ditemukan pada lokasi ini. Genus yang sangat menonjol di satu lokasi titik pengambilan conto sedimen inti yaitu Gephyrocapsa, Emiliania, dan Helicosphaera. Meskipun kajian ini masih bersifat kualitatif dan tahap studi awal; namun acuan tentang taksonomi nanoplankton modern dan kenampakan dari Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) akan memperkaya biodivesitas alga laut di sepanjang Laut Andaman dari perairan Indonesia.

Kata Kunci: Nanoplankton, morfologi, conto sedimen inti, taxonomi, Laut Andaman


Nannoplankton;morphology;sediment core;taxonomy;Andaman Sea

Full Text:



Awasthi, N., J. S. Ray, A. K. Singh, S. T. Band, and V. K. Rai. 2014, Provenance of the Late Quaternary sediments in the Andaman Sea: Implications for monsoon variability and ocean circulation, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 15, 3890–3906, doi:10.1002/2014GC005462.

Backman, J. 1980. Miocene-Pliocene nannofossils and sedimentation rates in the Hatton-Rockall Basin, NE Atlantic Ocean. Stockholm Contributions in Geology, 36: 1-91.

Boeckel B., Karl-Heinz Baumann, Rüdiger Henrich, Hanno Kinkel. 2006. Coccolith distribution patterns in South Atlantic and Southern Ocean surface sediments in relation to environmental gradients. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 53, Issue 6, June 2006, Pages 1073–109

Bolliet, T., A. Holbourn, W. Kuhnt, C. Laj, C. Kissel, L. Beaufort, M. Kienast, N. Andersen, D. Garbe-Schönberg, 2011. Mindanao dome variability over the last 160 kyr: Episodic glacial cooling of the West Pacific Warm Pool. Paleoceanography, Vol. 26, PA1208, doi: 10.1029/2010PA001966.

Bown, Paul R., Samantha J. Gibbs, Rosie Sheward, Sarah O’dea and david Higgins. 2014. Searching for cells: the potential of fossil coccospheres in coccolithophore research. Coccolithopore 2014 workshop volume

Brown, P.R. 2010. Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum interval of southern Tanzania (TDP Site 14). Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 31: 11-38.

Deflandre, G. & Fert, C. 1954. Observations sur les coccolithophoridés actuels et fossiles en microscopie ordinaire et électronique. Annales de Paléontologie, 40: 115-176.

Deflandre, G. 1952. Classe des Coccolithophoridés. (Coccolithophoridae. Lohmann, 1902). In: Grassé, P.P. (Editor), Traite de Zoologie. Masson, Paris, pp. 439-470.

Delille, B., et al. (2005), Response of primary production and calcification to changes of pCO2 during experimental blooms of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 19, GB2023, doi:10.1029/2004GB002318.

Du, Y., T. Qu, and G. Meyers. 2008. Interannual Variability of Sea Surface Temperature off Java and Sumatra in a Global GCM, J. Clim., 21(11), 2451–2465, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1753.1.

Gaarder, K.R. & Heimdal, B.R. 1977. A revision of the genus Syracosphaera Lohmann (Coccolithineae). "Meteor" Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie, 24: 54-71.

Haq, B.U., 1980. Biogeographic history of Miocene calcareous nannoplankton and paleoceanography of the Atlantic Ocean. Micropaleontology, 26(4): 414-443.

Hall, R. 2002. Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions, model and animations. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Volume 20, Issue 4, April 2002, Pages 353–431

Hay, W.W., Mohler, H.P., Roth, P.H., Schmidt, R.R. & Boudreaux, J.E. 1967. Calcareous nannoplankton zonation of the Cenozoic of the Gulf Coast and Caribbean-Antillean area, and transoceanic correlation. Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, 17: 428-480.

Hay, W. W., Mohler, H. P. & Wade, M. 1966. Calcareous Nannoplankton from Nal'chik (Northwestern Caucasus). -- Eclog. geol. Helv., 59, 1, p. 379-399.

Heckel, H., 1973. Late Oligocene to Recent nannoplankton from the Capricorn Basin, Great Barrier Reef area. Geol. Surv. Q+ Publ. 359, Palaeontol. Pap. 33, pp.1 23.

Haeckel, E. 1894. Systematische Phylogenie der Protisten und Pflanzen. Reimer, Berlin.

Hendrizan, M., Kapid, R., and Djuhaeni. 2014. Biostratigraphy of the Late Miocene Halang Formation in the Loh Pasir succession, Banyumas, Central Java. Berita Sedimentologi, vol. 5, no. 30.

Kamptner, E. 1954. Untersuchungen über den Feinbau der Coccolithen. Anzeiger. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematische-Naturwissenschafliche Klasse. Wien, 87: 152-158.

Kleijne, A. 1993. Morphology, Taxonomy and distribution of extant coccolithophorids (Calcareous nannoplankton). Drukkerij FEBO B.V., Katwijk, 321 pp.

Kida, S., and K. J. Richards. 2009. Seasonal sea surface temperature variability in the Indonesian Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C06016,doi:10.1029/2008JC005150.

Marshall, J. Harold. 1969. Phytoplankton Distribution Off the North Carolina Coast. The American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 82, No. 1 (Jul., 1969), pp. 241-257

Matsuoka, H. & Okada, H., 1990. Time-progressive morphometric changes of the genus Gephyrocapsa in the Quaternary sequence of the tropical Indian Ocean, Site 709. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, 115: 255-270.

McIntyre, A., Be., A.W.H., 1967. Modern coccolithophoridae of Atlantic Ocean.I. Placoliths and Cyrtoliths.Deep-Sea Res.14, p. 561-597.

Mohtadi, M., Oppo, D.W., Lűckge, A., DePol-Holz, R., Steinke, S., Groeneveld, J., Hemme, N., Hebbeln, D. 2011.Reconstructing the thermal structure of the upper ocean: Insights from planktic foraminifera shell chemistry and alkenones in modern sediment of the tropical eastern Indian Ocean.Paleoceanography, vol. 26, PA3219, doi: 10.1029/2011PA002132

Okada, H. & Honjo, S. 1973. The distribution of oceanic coccolithophorids in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Research, 20: 355-374.

Okada, H., 1983. Modern nannofossil assemblages of coastal and marginal seas along the western Pacific Ocean. Utrecht Micropaleontol. Bul., 30: 171-187.

Perch-Nielsen, 1985. Cenozoic calcareous nannofossil, in Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J.B., Perch-Nielsen, K. 1985.Plankton stratigraphy, Cambridge earth science series.Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0521235766, 9780521235761.

Qu, T., and G. Meyers. 2005, Seasonal characteristics of circulation in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35(2), 255–267, doi:10.1175/JPO-2682.1.

Renaud, S., Patrizia Ziveri, Alexandra T.C. Broerse. Geographical and seasonal differences in morphology and dynamics of the coccolithophore Calcidiscus leptoporus. Marine Micropaleontology 46, p.363-385. PII: S 0 3 7 7 - 8 3 9 8 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 8 1 – 6

Riebesell, U., Ingrid Zondervan, Björn Rost, Philippe D. Tortell, Richard E. Zeebe & Francois M. M. Morel. 2000. Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature, Vol. 407.

Silva, A., S. Palma, P.B. Oliveira, M.T. Moita. 2009. Calcidiscus quadriperforatus and Calcidiscus leptoporus as oceanographic tracers in Lisbon Bay (Portugal). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 81 (2009) 333–344. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2008.11.010.

Sprengel, C., Baumann,K-H., Henderiks, J., Henrich, R., Neuer, S. 2002. Modern coccolithophore and carbonate sedimentation along a productivity gradient in the Canary Islands region: seasonal export production and surface accumulation rates. Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 3577-3598

Tapponnier, P., G. Peltzer, A. Y. Le Dain, R. Armijo. 1982. Propagating extrusion tectonics in Asia: New insights from simple experiments with plasticine. GEOLOGY, v. 10, p. 611-616, December 1982

Tapper, N. J. 2002, Climate, climatic variability and atmospheric circulation patterns in the maritime continent region, in Bridging Wallace’s Line: The Environmental and Cultural History and Dynamics of the Southeast Asian–Australian Region, edited by P. Kershaw et al., pp. 5–28, Catena, Reiskirchen, Germany.

Young, J.R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Sprengel,C., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. 2003. A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research Special Issue 1.