Structural complexity in the boundary of forearc basin – accretionary wedge in the northwesternmost Sunda active margin

Maruf M. Mukti

Abstract


The area from Andaman to northern Sumatran margin is a region where major faults collided that complicates the structural configuration. The origin of structures in the boundary between the accretionary wedge and forearc basin in the northwesternmost segment of the Sunda margin has been a subject of debates. This article reviews several published works on the Andaman – north Sumatran margin to characterize the boundary between forearc basin and accretionary wedge. Complex strain partitioning in this margin is characterized by sliver faults that crossing boundaries between the backarc basin, volcanic arc, forearc basin, and accretionary wedge. The fault zone can be divided into two segments: The West Andaman Fault (WAF) in the north and Simeulue Fault (SiF) in the southern part. A restraining step-over formed in between WAF and SiF. The SiF may extent onshore Simeulue to a strike-slip fault onshore. Strain-partitioning in such an oblique convergent margin appears to have formed a new deformation zone rather than reactivated the major rheological boundary in between the accretionary wedge and forearc basin. The eastern margin of the Andaman-north Sumatra accretionary wedge appears to have form as landward-vergent backthrusts of Diligent Fault (DF) and Nicobar Aceh Fault (NAF) rather than strike-slip faults. This characteristic appears to have formed in the similar way with the compressional structures dominated the eastern margin accretionary wedge of the central and south Sumatra forearc.

 Keywords: Andaman, North Sumatra, forearc, structure, accretionary wedge, strain partitioning


Daerah Andaman - Sumatera bagian utara adalah wilayah di mana patahan-patahan besar saling bertemu dan membuat konfigurasi struktur menjadi rumit. Asal-usul struktur di batas antara prisma akresi dan cekungan busur muka di bagian paling baratlaut dari tepian Sunda telah menjadi topik perdebatan. Artikel ini mengulas beberapa studi yang telah diterbitkan sebelumnya mengenai tepian Andaman - Sumatra bagian utara untuk mengkarakterisasikan batas antara cekungan muka dan prisma akresi. Pemisahan regangan yang kompleks di tepian ini dicirikan oleh sliver fault yang melintasi batas antara cekungan busur belakang, busur vulkanik, cekungan busur muka, dan prisma akresi. Zona sesar tersebut dapat dibagi menjadi dua segmen, yaitu Sesar Andaman Barat (WAF) di utara dan Simeulue Fault (SiF) di bagian selatan. Sebuah restraining step-over terbentuk di antara WAF dan SiF. SiF kemungkinan menerus sampai ke Pulau Simeulue dan menyatu dengan sesar geser. Pemisahan regangan di tepian konvergen yang miring seperti itu tampaknya telah membentuk zona deformasi baru daripada mengaktifkan kembali batas reologi utama di antara prisma akresi dan cekungan busur muka. Batas bagian timur dari prisma akresi di Andaman – Sumatera bagian utara memiliki bentuk sebagai backthrusts berarah darat yaitu Sesar Diligent (DF) dan Sesar Nicobar Aceh (NAF) dan bukan merupakan sesar geser. Karakteristik ini tampaknya terbentuk dengan proses yang mirip dengan struktur-struktur kompresional yang mendominasi bagian timur prisma akresi di daerah Sumatra bagian tengah dan selatan.

Kata kunci: Andaman, Sumatera bagian, busur muka, struktur, prisma akresi, pemisahan regangan




 


Keywords


Andaman; North Sumatra; forearc; structure; accretionary wedge; strain partitioning

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, R., Carter, A., Najman, Y., Bandopadhyay, P.C., Chapman, H.J., Bickle, M.J., Garzanti, E., Vezzoli, G., Andò, S., Foster, G.L., & Gerring, C., 2007. New constraints on the sedimentation and uplift history of the Andaman-Nicobar accretionary prism, South Andaman Island, in: Draut, A., Clift, P.D., Scholl, D.W. (Eds.), Formation and Applications of the Sedimentary Record in Arc Collision Zones: The Geological Society of America Special Paper 436. Geological Society of America, 1–34.

Aribowo, S., Handayani, L., Hananto, N.D., Gaol, K.L., Syuhada, & Anggono, T., 2014. Deformasi kompleks di Pulau Simuelue, Sumatra: Interaksi antara struktur dan diapirisme. Riset Geologi dan Pertambangan, 24(2): 131–144.

Berglar, K., Gaedicke, C., Franke, D., Ladage, S., Klingelhoefer, F., & Djajadihardja, Y.S., 2010. Structural evolution and strike-slip tectonics off north-western Sumatra. Tectonophysics, 480(1-4): 19–132.

Berglar, K., Gaedicke, C., Ladage, S., & Thöle, H., 2017. The Mentawai forearc sliver off Sumatra: A model for a strike-slip duplex at a regional scale. Tectonophysics, 710-711: 225–231.

Berglar, K., Gaedicke, C., Lutz, R., Franke, D., & Djajadihardja, Y.S., 2008. Neogene subsidence and stratigraphy of the Simeulue forearc basin, Northwest Sumatra. Marine Geology. 253(1-2): 1–13.

Byrne, D.E., Davis, D.M., & Sykes, L.R., 1988. Loci and maximum size of thrust earthquakes and the mechanics of the shallow region of subduction zones. Tectonics, 7(4): 833–857.

Byrne, D.E., Wang, W., & Davis, D.M., 1993. Mechanical role of backstops in the growth of forearcs. Tectonics 12(1): 123–144.

Chauhan, A.P.S., Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., Carton, H., Klingelhoefer, F., Dessa, J.-X., Permana, H., White, N.J., Graindorge, D., & Team, S.S., 2009. Seismic imaging of forearc backthrusts at northern Sumatra subduction zone. Geophysical Journal International 179(3): 1772–1780.

Clift, P., & Vannucchi, P., 2004. Controls on tectonic accretion versus erosion in subduction zones: Implications for the origin and recycling of the continental crust. Reviews of Geophysics, 42(2): 1–31.

Cochran, J.R., 2010. Morphology and tectonics of the Andaman Forearc, northeastern Indian Ocean. Geophysical Journal International, 182(2): 631–651.

Curray, J.R., 2005. Tectonics and history of the Andaman Sea region. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25(1): 187–232.

Curray, J.R., Moore, D.G., Lawver, L.A., Emmel, F.J., Raitt, R.W., Henry, M., & Kieckhefer, R., 1978. Tectonics of the Andaman Sea and Burma, in: Watkins, J., Montadert, L., Dickerson, P.W. (Eds.), Geological and Geophysical Investigations of Continental Margins, American Association Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 29: 189–198.

Deighton, I., Mukti, M.M., Singh, S., Travis, T., Hardwick, A., & Hernon, K., 2014. Nias Basin, NW Sumatra – New insight into forearc structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity from long-offset 2D seismic data, in: Proceedings, Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention & Exhibition, Jakarta, IPA14–G–299.

Diament, M., Harjono, H., Karta, K., Deplus, C., Dahrin, D., Zen, M.T., Gerard, M., Lassal, O., Martin, A., & Malod, J., 1992. Mentawai fault zone off Sumatra: A new key to the geodynamics of western Indonesia. Geology, 20(3): 259–262.

Endharto, M., Sukido, 1994. Geologic map of the Sinabang Sheet, Sumatera. Bandung.

Frerichs, W.E., 1971. Paleobathymetric trends of neogene foraminiferal assemblages and sea floor tectonism in the Andaman Sea area. Marine Geology, 11(3): 159–173.

Goli, A., & Pandey, D.K., 2014. Structural characteristics of the andaman forearc inferred from interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition, 88(4): 1145–1156.

Hall, D.M., Duff, B.A., Courbe, M.C., Seubert, B.W., Siahaan, M., & Wirabudi, A.D., 1993. The southern fore-arc zone of Sumatra: Cainozoic basin-forming tectonism and hydrocarbon potential, in: Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Twenty Second Annual Convention, Indonesian Petroleum Association, Jakarta, 319–344.

Hananto, N., Singh, S., Mukti, M.M., & Deighton, I., 2012. Neotectonics of north Sumatra forearc, in: Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirty-Sixth Annual Convention & Exhibition, IPA–G–100.

Hoth, S., Hoffmann-Rothe, A., & Kukowski, N., 2007. Frontal accretion: An internal clock for bivergent wedge deformation and surface uplift. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 112(B6): 1-17, B06408.

Hubbard, J., & Shaw, J.H., 2009. Uplift of the Longmen Shan and Tibetan plateau, and the 2008 Wenchuan (M = 7.9) earthquake. Nature 458(7235): 1-14.

Izart, A., Kemal, B.M., & Malod, J.A., 1994. Seismic stratigraphy and subsidence evolution of the northwest Sumatra fore-arc basin. Marine Geology, 122(1-2): 109–124.

Jourdain, A., Singh, S.C., Escartin, J., Klinger, Y., Raju, K.A.K., & Mcardle, J., 2016. Crustal accretion at a sedimented spreading centre in the Andaman Sea, Geology, 44(5): 351–354.

Malod, J.A., Karta, K., Beslier, M.O., & Zen, M.T., 1995. From normal to oblique subduction: Tectonic relationships between Java and Sumatra. Journal Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 12(1-2): 85–93.

Malod, J.A., & Kemal, B.M., 1996. The Sumatra margin: Oblique subduction and lateral displacement of the accretionary prism, in: Hall, R., Blundell, D. (Eds.), Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia, Geological Society Special Publication, 106(1): 9–28.

Martin, K.M., Gulick, S.P.S., Austin Jr., J.A., Berglar, K., Franke, D., & Udrekh, 2014. The West Andaman Fault: A complex strain-partitioning boundary at the seaward edge of the Aceh Basin, offshore Sumatra. Tectonics, 33(5): 786–806.

McCaffrey, R., 1992. Oblique plate convergence, slip vectors, and forearc deformation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 97(B6): 8905-8915.

McCaffrey, R., 2009. The Tectonic Framework of the Sumatran Subduction Zone. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 37: 345–366.

McClay, K.R., Whitehouse, P.S., Dooley, T., & Richards, M., 2004. 3D evolution of fold and thrust belts formed by oblique convergence. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 21(7): 857–877.

Moeremans, R.E., & Singh, S.C., 2015. Fore-arc basin deformation in the Andaman-Nicobar segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: Insight from high-resolution seismic reflection data. Tectonics, 34(8): 1736–1750.

Morley, C.K., 2015. Cenozoic structural evolution of the Andaman Sea: evolution from an extensional to a sheared margin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 431: 1-25.

Mukti, M.M., Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., Permana, H., & Deighton, I., 2011. Doubly Vergent Accretionary Wedge Active Tectonics in The Sumatra Subduction Zone, in: AGU Fall Meeting. American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, T21B–2356.

Mukti, M.M., Singh, S.C., Deighton, I., Hananto, N.D., Moeremans, R., Permana, H., 2012a. Structural evolution of backthrusting in the Mentawai Fault Zone, offshore Sumatran forearc. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13(12): 1–21.

Mukti, M.M., Singh, S.C., Moeremans, R., Hananto, N.D., Permana, H., & Deighton, I., 2012b. Neotectonics of the Southern Sumatran Forearc, in: Indonesian Petroleum Association, 36th Annual Convention and Exhibition, IPA12–G–074.

Noda, A., 2016. Forearc basins: Types, geometries, and relationships to subduction zone dynamics. Geological Society of American Bulletin, 128(5-6): 879–895.

Pandey, D.K., Anitha, G., Prerna, R., & Pandey, A., 2017. Late Cenozoic seismic stratigraphy of the Andaman Forearc Basin, Indian Ocean. Petroleum Science, 14(4): 648–661.

Pedersen, R.B., Searle, M.P., Carter, A., & Bandopadhyay, P.C., 2010. U–Pb zircon age of the Andaman ophiolite: implications for the beginning of subduction beneath the Andaman–Sumatra arc. Journal of Geological Society, London. 167(6): 1105–1112.

Pesicek, J.D., Thurber, C.H., Zhang, H., DeShon, H.R., Engdahl, E.R., & Widiyantoro, S., 2010. Teleseismic double-difference relocation of earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone using a 3-D model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 115 B10303: 1-20.

Raju, K.A.K., Ramprasad, T., Rao, P.S., Rao, B.R., & Varghese, J., 2004. New insights into the tectonic evolution of the Andaman basin, northeast Indian Ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 221(1-4): 145–162.

Roy, S.K., & Banerjee, S., 2016. Soft Sediment Deformation Structures in the Andaman Flysch Group, Andaman Basin: Evidence for Palaeogene Seismic Activity in the Island Arc. Berita Sedimentologi, 35: 55–64.

Samuel, M.A., & Harbury, N.A., 1996. The Mentawai fault zone and deformation of the Sumatran Forearc in the Nias area, in: Hall, R., Blundell, D. (Eds.), Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia, Geological Society of London, Special Publication, 106(1): 337–351.

Samuel, M.A., Harbury, N.A., Jones, M.., & Matthews, S.J., 1995. Inversion-controlled uplift of an outer-arc ridge: Nias Island, offshore Sumatra, in: Buchanan, J.G., Buchanan, P.G. (Eds.), Basin Inversion. Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 88(1): 473–492.

Sapiie, B., Yulian, F., Chandra, J., Satyana, A.H., Dharmayanti, D., Rustam, A.H., & Deighton, I., 2015. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of Fore-Arc Basins: Implications of Future Hydrocarbon Potential in the Western Indonesia, in: Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association 39th Annual Convention & Exhibition.

Seeber, L., Mueller, C., Fujiwara, T., Arai, K., Soh, W., Djajadihardja, Y., & Cormier, M., 2007. Accretion, mass wasting, and partitioned strain over the 26 Dec 2004 Mw9.2 rupture offshore Aceh, northern Sumatra. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 263(1-2): 16–31.

Shaw, J.H., Bilotti, F., & Brennan, P.A., 1999. Patterns of imbricate thrusting. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111(8):1140–1154.

Singh, S.C., Carton, H., Tapponnier, P., Hananto, N.D., Chauhan, A.P.S., Hartoyo, D., Bayly, M., Moeljopranoto, S., Bunting, T., Christie, P., Lubis, H., & Martin, J., 2008. Seismic evidence for broken oceanic crust in the 2004 Sumatra earthquake epicentral region. Nature Geoscience, 1(11): 777–781.

Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., & Chauhan, A.P.S., 2011. Enhanced reflectivity of backthrusts in the recent great Sumatran earthquake rupture zones. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(4): 1–5.

Singh, S.C., Hananto, N.D., Chauhan, A.P.S., Permana, H., Denolle, M., Hendriyana, A., & Natawidjaja, D., 2010. Evidence of active backthrusting at the NE Margin of Mentawai Islands, SW Sumatra. Geophysical Journal International, 180(2): 703–714.

Singh, S.C., Moeremans, R., Mcardle, J., & Johansen, K., 2013. Seismic images of the sliver strike-slip fault and back thrust in the Andaman-Nicobar region. Journal of Geophysical Research. 118(10): 5208–5224.

Sloan, R.A., Elliott, J.R., Searle, M.P., & Morley, C.K., 2017. Active tectonics of Myanmar and the Andaman Sea. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 48(1): 19–52.

Storti, F., Salvini, F., & McClay, K., 2000. Synchronous and velocity-partitioned thrusting and thrust polarity reversal in experimentally produced, doubly-vergent thrust wedges: Implications for natural orogens. Tectonics, 19(2): 378–396.

von Huene, R., & Scholl, D.W., 1991. Observation at convergent margins concernng sediments subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust. Reviews of Geophysics, 29(3): 279–316.




Abstracted/Indexed by: