Rare Earth Elements Vapor Transport By Fumaroles in the Post Caldera Complex of Weh Island Submarine Volcano, Aceh Province Northern Sumatra

Hananto Kurnio, Ediar Usman


Research found out that fumaroles and solfataras are rare earth element (REE) vapor transport agents in Weh Island submarine volcano – Aceh. Shallow high resolution single channel seismic was used to map the distribution of seafloor fumaroles surrounding the submarine volcano. Samples of REE depositions were taken from Jaboi geothermal field, and mineralization zone at Pria Laot coast; as well as seafloor surrounding active fumaroles by divers.  Rare earth elements (REE) were analysed using ICP – MS (inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry) with detection limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 ppm (part per million).
The central part of Weh submarine volcano is the most active REE deposition. This area is build by normal faults and grabens oriented north – south of open character which acted as channel for hydrothermal fluids reaching seafloor surface.
Some REE abundances such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd due to its location in the central of hydrothermal activity. This proximity explains such abundances of this andesitic component sample of agglomerate.  

Keywords: REE, vapor transport, fumaroles, Weh Island, Aceh.

Penelitian mendapatkan bahwa fumarole dan solfatara adalah sebagai agen transportasi uap Logam Tanah Jarang (LTJ) di gunungapi bawah laut Pulau Weh – Aceh, Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD). Seismik saluran tunggal dangkal resolusi tinggi digunakan untuk memetakan fumarole dasarlaut di sekitar gunungapi bawah laut tersebut.
Bagian tengah gunungapi bawah laut Pulau Weh merupakan area paling aktif pengendapan LTJ. Bagian ini dibangun oleh sesar-sesar normal dan graben berorientasi utara – selatan dengan karakter terbuka sebagai saluran untuk fluida hidrotermal mencapai permukaan dasar laut.
Kelimpahan unsur tanah jarang La, Ce, Pr dan Nd dikarenakan posisinya pada pusat aktivitas hidrotermal. Kedekatan dengan pusat hidrotermal ini menjelaskan kelimpahan REE dari contoh komponen andesitic yang diambil dari aglomerat ini.

Kata kunci: UTJ (Unsur Tanah Jarang), transportasi uap, fumarol, PulauWeh, Aceh.


REE;vapor transport;fumaroles;Weh Island;Aceh

Full Text:



Arnorsson, S., 1983, New gas geothermometers for geothermal exploration calibration and application, GeochimicaetCosmochimicaActa Vol. 49, pp 1307-1325

Chiodini,G., 1989, Gas geobarometry for hydrothermal systems and its application to some Italian geothermal areas, Applied geochemistry, Vol . 4, pp 465-472

Fiske, R.S., Naka, J., Iizasa, K., Yuasa, M. And Klaus, A., 2001. Submarine silicic caldera at the front of the Izu-Bonin arc, Japan: Voluminous seafloor eruptions of rhyolite pumice. The Geological Society of America Bulletin, v.113 no.7 p. 813-824.

Fournier,1981, Application of WaterGeochemistry Geothermal Exploration and Reservoir Engineering, “Geothermal System: Principles and case Histories”. JohnWilley&Sons, New York.

Gasparon, M., 2005. Chapter 9. Quarternary volcanicity. Eds. Geological Society, London, Memoirs 2005; v.31; p. 10.1144/GSL. MEM. 2005.031.01.19.

Genge, M.J., Balme, M., Jones, A.P., 2001. Salt-bearing fumarole deposits in the summit crater of OldoinyoLengai, Northern Tanzania: interactions between natrocarbonatite lava and meteoric water. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 106, 111-122.

Giggenbach, dkk, 1988, Methods for tthe collection and analysis of geothermal and volcanic water and gas samples, Petone New Zealand

Gilbert, C.D. and Williams-Jones, A.E., 2008.Vapour transport of rare earth elements (REE) in volcanic gas: Evidence from encrustations at OldoinyoLengai. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 176 (2008) 519-528.

Heinrich, C.A., Gunther, D., Audetat, A., Ulrich, T., Frischnecht, R., 1999.Metal fractionation between magmatic brine and vapour, determined by microanalyses of fluid inclusions. Geology 27 (8), 255-258.

Keller, J., Krafft, M., 1990.Effusive natrocarbonatite activity of OldoinyoLengai, June 1988. Bulletin of Volcanology 52, 629-645.

Klaus K. E. (2005). Jackson, Julia A.; Mehl, James P.; Neuendorf, Klaus K. E., eds. Glossary of Geology.Springer Science & Business Media.p. 257. ISBN 9780922152766.Retrieved 2015-06-06. fumarole field[:] A group of cool fumaroles.

Kooten, 1987, Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry, Journal of volcanology and Geothermal Research , 31, 269-280.

Kurnio, H., Syafri, I., Sudradjat, A., Rosana, M.F. and Muslim, D., 2015a. Seafloor Faulting and its Relation to Submarine Volcanic Activities Based on Sub Bottom Profiling (SBP) Analyses in Weh Island Waters and its Surrounding, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province. Bulletin of the Marine Geology, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 1 to 10.

Kurnio, H., Lubis, S. and Widi, H.C., 2015b. Submarine Volcano Characteristics in Sabang Waters. Bulletin of the Marine Geology, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 85 to 96.

Kurnio, H., Syafri, I., Sudradjat, A. and Rosana, M.F., 2016. Sabang Submarine Volcano Aceh, Indonesia: Review of Some Trace and Rare Earth Elements Abundances Produced by Seafloor Fumarole Activities. Indonesian Journal on Geoscience Vol.3 No.3 December 2016: 173-182.

Kusnadi, D., Supeno and Purwoto, E., 2005. Penyelidikan geokimia panas bumi Daerah Jaboi, Sabang, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Pemaparan Hasil Kegiatan Survei Panas Bumi 2005. Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (In Bahasa Indonesia).

Pokrovski,G.S.,  Borisova, A.Y. and Bychkov, A.Y., 2013. Speciation and Transport of Metals and Metalloids in Geological Vapors.Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 76. No.1, p. 165-218.

Scher, S., 2012. Fumarolic Activity, Acid-Sulfate Alteration and High-Sulfidation Epithermal Precious Metal Mineralization in the Crater of Kawah Ijen Volcano (Java, Indonesia). A thesis submitted to McGill University in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science. Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Taran, 1986, Gas Geothermometers for hydrothermal Systems, Geochemistry International Vol. 23 No.7, 111-126

Williams-Jones, A.E., Migdisov, A.A., Archibald, S.M., Xiao, Z., 2002. Vapour transport of ore metals. In: Hellman, R., Wood, S.A. (Eds.), Water-Rock Interactions, Ore Deposits, and Environmental Geochemistry: A Tribute to David A Crerar. Special Publication, vol. 7. The Geochemical Society, pp. 279-305.

Zaitsev, A.N., Keller, J., 2006. Mineralogical transformations of Oldoinyo Lengainatro carbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos 91, 191-207.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32693/bomg.31.2.2016.317

Accredited by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Republic Indonesia 

Abstracted/Indexed by: